There will be Meta
THERE WILL BE META
To Invent the Future, You Must Understand the Past
1400 House of Medici
Salon de Paris
292 years ago
The term "Salon Hanging" or the german equivalent "Petersburger Hängung" describes a concept of hanging a group of artworks on a wall. The term dates to pre-revolutionary times, to "Salon de Paris", the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts that was initiated in 1667 by a man known as the Sun King, Louis XIV, to propagate the official art taste at the court. The name was derived from where the exhibition was held, the Salon Carré which belongs to the Palace of the Louvre. The Salon eventually became the greatest regular art show during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Exhibition at the Salon de Paris was essential for any artist to achieve success in France for at least the next 200 years. Exhibition in the Salon marked a sign of royal favor.
The Social Contract
255 years ago
by Jean-Jacques Rousseau
The Social Contract, or Of the Social Contract, or Principles of Political Law (1762) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).
The Social Contract helped inspire political reforms or revolutions in Europe, especially in France. The Social Contract argued against the idea that monarchs were divinely empowered to legislate. Rousseau asserts that only the people, who are sovereign, have that all-powerful right.
In 1810, Welsh social reformer, factory owner and inventor Robert Owen (born 1771), from Wales, and his partners purchased New Lanark mill from Owen's father-in-law David Dale and proceeded to introduce better labour standards including discounted retail shops where profits were passed on to his employees.
Owen left New Lanark to pursue other forms of cooperative organization and develop coop ideas through writing and lecture. Cooperative communities were set up in Glasgow, Indiana and Hampshire, although ultimately unsuccessful.
The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, (RCEP) founded in 1844, is usually considered the first successful cooperative enterprise, used as a model for modern coops, following the 'Rochdale Principles'. A group of 28 weavers and other artisans in Rochdale, England set up the society to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford. Within ten years there were over a thousand cooperative societies in the United Kingdom.
200 years ago
Ted Nelson (born 1937), an American pioneer of information technology, philosopher, and sociologist coined the terms hypertext and hypermedia.
54 years ago
- 1974 book demanded computer power for people
- Urged Computer literacy and
- fight against mainframe & central infos systems
was the first hypertext project, founded in 1960 by Ted Nelson with the goal of creating a computer network with a simple user interface. The effort is documented in his 1974 book Computer Lib / Dream Machines and the 1981 Literary Machines. Much of his adult life has been devoted to working on Xanadu and advocating for it.
Administrators of Project Xanadu have declared it an improvement over the World Wide Web, with mission statement: "Today's popular software simulates paper. The World Wide Web (another imitation of paper) trivialises our original hypertext model with one-way ever-breaking links and no management of version or contents.
The Xanadu project itself failed to flourish, for a variety of reasons.
Original 17 rules
- Every Xanadu server is uniquely and securely identified.
- Every Xanadu server can be operated independently or in a network.
- Every user is uniquely and securely identified.
- Every user can search, retrieve, create and store documents.
- Every document can consist of any number of parts each of which may be of any data type.
- Every document can contain links of any type including virtual copies ("transclusions") to any other document in the system accessible to its owner.
- Links are visible and can be followed from all endpoints.
- Permission to link to a document is explicitly granted by the act of publication.
- Every document can contain a royalty mechanism at any desired degree of granularity to ensure payment on any portion accessed, including virtual copies ("transclusions") of all or part of the document.
- Every document is uniquely and securely identified.
- Every document can have secure access controls.
- Every document can be rapidly searched, stored and retrieved without user knowledge of where it is physically stored.
- Every document is automatically moved to physical storage appropriate to its frequency of access from any given location.
- Every document is automatically stored redundantly to maintain availability even in case of a disaster.
- Every Xanadu service provider can charge their users at any rate they choose for the storage, retrieval and publishing of documents.
- Every transaction is secure and auditable only by the parties to that transaction.
- The Xanadu client–server communication protocol is an openly published standard. Third-party software development and integration is encouraged.
48 years ago
The ARPAnet went live in 1969. The first two sites to come online were Kleinrock's lab at UCLA, and Doug Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center at SRI.
"Boosting mankind's capability
for coping with complex, urgent problems"
WAR AND CINEMA
Perception is a battlefield
Paul Virilio is a French cultural theorist, urbanist, and aesthetic philosopher. He is best known for his writings about technology as it has developed in relation to speed and power, with diverse references to architecture, the arts, the city and the military.
In contemporary warfare, logistics does not just imply the movement of personnel, tanks, fuel and so on, but also the movement of images both to and from the battlefield.
Virilio talks a lot about the creation of CNN and the concept of the newshound. The newshound will capture images which will then be sent to CNN, which may then be broadcast to the public. This movement of images can start a conflict. The 'field of battle' also exists as a 'field of perception'.
Invention and implementation of the World Wide Web
by Tim Berners-Lee, an English independent contractor at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland.
In 1980 Berners-Lee built ENQUIRE, as a personal database of people and software models, but also as a way to play with hypertext; each new page of information in ENQUIRE had to be linked to an existing page.
37 years ago
1991 HTML Websites
26 years ago
Google! Are you feeling lucky?
Google's mission is to organize the world's information, making it universally accessible and useful.
An Elegant, Easy-to-Use Interface: Google's clean, uncluttered interface is designed to make it easy for users to enter search queries and interpret results. Results are presented with context sensitive summaries so users can easily tell if the corresponding web pages will satisfy their need. Users can also enter a query and click the "I'm Feeling LuckyTM" button, which takes users directly to the website of the first search result. For example, entering
smithsonian into Google search field and clicking the "I'm Feeling Lucky" button takes the user directly to www.si.edu, the official homepage of the Smithsonian Institution.
Sophisticated Text-Matching: Unlike conventional search engines, Google is hypertext-based. It analyzes all the content on each web page and factors in fonts, subdivisions, and the precise positions of all terms on the page. Google also factors in the content of neighboring web pages. All of this data enables Google to return results that are more relevant to user queries.
Patent-Pending PageRankTM Technology: Core to Google's search engine is its patent-pending PageRank technology. PageRank performs an objective measurement of the importance of web pages and is calculated by solving an equation of 500 million variables and more than 2 billion terms. PageRank uses the vast link structure of the web as an organizational tool. In essence, Google interprets a link from Page A to Page B as a "vote" by Page A for Page B. Google assesses a page's importance by the votes it receives. Google also analyzes the page that casts the vote. Votes cast by pages that are themselves "important" weigh more heavily and help to make other pages "important." Important, high-quality pages receive a higher PageRank and are ordered higher in the results. Google's technology uses the collective intelligence of the web to determine a page's importance. Google does not use editors or its own employees to judge a page's importance.
HOT or NOT?
16 years ago
Websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability (ease of use, even by non-experts), and interoperability (this means that a website can work well with other products, systems, and devices) for end users
13 years ago
2005 - 2008
12 years ago
The Black Swan:
The impact of the highly improbable
The Black Swan is a book released on April 17, 2007 by Nicholas Taleb. The book focuses on the extreme impact of certain kinds of rare and unpredictable events (outliers) and humans' tendency to find simplistic explanations for these events retrospectively. This theory has since become known as the black swan theory.
A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System
invented by an unknown programmer, or a group of programmers, under the name Satoshi Nakamoto and released as open-source software in 2009.
The system is peer-to-peer, and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary. These transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called a blockchain.
Time for Outrage
Time for Outrage! is the English translation of the bestselling tract Indignez vous! by the French diplomat, member of the French Resistance and concentration camp survivor Stéphane Hessel.
The 94-year-old author starts with a brief reference to his participation in the French Resistance at the end of the Second World War, pointing out that outrage was at its roots. The author asserts that indifference is the worst of attitudes.
Published by a small publisher on october 21st 2010 in Montpellier (France), the 32-page booklet has sold nearly 1.5 million copies in France and has been translated into numerous other languages.
The tract is calling for non-violent action and for a peaceful uprising against the powers of finance capitalism.
Der Finanzkapitalismus, der durch Lobbyisten den Staat beherrsche, bedrohe die Werte der Zivilisation, und die Unterschiede zwischen Arm und Reich seien in der Welt noch nie so groß gewesen wie in dieser Zeit. Die Behauptung, die Kosten für eine allgemeine soziale Sicherung wären zu hoch, sei falsch, da sie verkenne, dass der Wohlstand heute „so viel größer ist als zur Zeit der Befreiung, als Europa in Trümmern lag.“
Hessel bezieht sich bei alledem auf den Existentialismus Jean-Paul Sartres, den er selbst 1939 in Paris kennengelernt hatte, sowie auf die Philosophie Hegels, die die Geschichte optimistisch als eine Abfolge von Fortschritten zum Besseren hin auffasst.
Das Manifest endet mit dem Appell: „Neues schaffen heißt, Widerstand leisten. Widerstand leisten heißt, Neues schaffen.“
2010 - 2017
A whole new way of presenting images online
Dear Internet, please help us
to unfuck online publishing.
Project Xanado, the world's most delayed software
released after 54 years of development
At its simplest, OpenXanadu lets users build documents that seamlessly embed the sources which they are linking back to, creating, in Nelson's words, "an entire form of literature where links do not break as versions change; where documents may be closely compared side by side and closely annotated; where it is possible to see the origins of every quotation; and in which there is a valid copyright system - a literary, legal and business arrangement - for frictionless, non-negotiated quotation at any time and in any amount."
"The web trivialized this original Xanadu model," Nelson argued in 2004, "vastly but incorrectly simplifying these problems to a world of fragile ever-breaking one-way links, with no recognition of change or copyright, and no support for multiple versions or principled re-use."
Ted Nelson: I Think I Know Who Satoshi Is
Ted Nelson thinks he identified Satoshi Nakamoto and talks about it in a video on Youtube uploaded in 2013.
Blockchains allow social agreements,
or "smart contracts",
to be formalised and entrusted to machines to execute at the right time, and right conditions. These codified laws can be audited by anyone, and are impossible to hack. Since everyone can look at these contracts, the need for having to trust a third party is eliminated, and instead transferred to machines that automate trust.
This property of blockchains makes them 'trustless', where transactions between individuals no longer need a trusted third party, such as a bank.
Imagine a future where machines talk to each other, to track supply chains, pay carbon credits, manage the ownership of assets and emission of currencies in a new world, where trust is guaranteed by technology.
Stephen Hawking's dies at Pi Day
"For millions of years, mankind lived just like the animals. Then something happened which unleashed the power of our imagination. We learned to talk and we learned to listen. Speech has allowed the communication of ideas, enabling human beings to work together to build the impossible. Mankind's greatest achievements have come about by talking, and its greatest failures by not talking. It doesn't have to be like this. Our greatest hopes could become reality in the future. With the technology at our disposal, the possibilities are unbounded. All we need to do is make sure we keep talking."
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